A Activity diagram used in UML 6/9 and SysML B Bachman diagram Booch used in software engineering Block diagram Block Definition Diagram BDD used in SysML C Carroll diagram Cartogram Catalytic cycle Chemical equation Curly arrow diagram Category theory diagrams Cause-and-effect diagram Chord diagram Circuit diagram Class diagram from UML 1/9 Collaboration diagram from UML 2.0 Communication diagram from UML 2.0 Commutative diagram Comparison diagram Component diagram from UML 3/9 Composite structure diagram from UML 2.0 Concept map Constellation diagram Context diagram Control flow diagram Contour diagram Cordier diagram Cross functional flowchart D Data model diagram Data flow diagram Data structure diagram Dendrogram Dependency diagram Deployment diagram from UML 9/9 Dot and cross diagram Double bubble map used in education Drakon-chart E Entity-Relationship diagram ERD Event-driven process chain Euler diagram Eye diagram a diagram of a received telecommunications signal Express-G Extended Functional Flow Block Diagram EFFBD F Family tree Feynman diagram Flow chart Flow process chart Flow diagram Fusion diagram Free body diagram G Gantt chart shows the timing of tasks or activities used in project management Grotrian diagram Goodman diagram shows the fatigue data example: for a wind turbine blades H Hasse diagram HIPO diagram I Internal Block Diagram IBD used in SysML IDEF0 IDEF1 entity relations Interaction overview diagram from UML Ishikawa diagram J Jackson diagram K Karnaugh map Kinematic diagram L Ladder diagram Line of balance Link grammar diagram M Martin ERD Message Sequence Chart Mind map used for learning, brainstorming, memory, visual thinking and problem solving Minkowski spacetime diagram Molecular orbital diagram N N2 Nassi Shneiderman diagram or structogram a representation for structured programming Nomogram Network diagram O Object diagram from UML 2/9 Organigram Onion diagram also known as "stacked Venn diagram" P Package diagram from UML 4/9 and SysML Parametric diagram from SysML PERT Petri net shows the structure of a distributed system as a directed bipartite graph with annotations Phylogenetic tree - represents a phylogeny evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms Piping and instrumentation diagram P&ID Phase diagram used to present solid/liquid/gas information Plant Diagram Pressure volume diagram used to analyse engines Pourbaix diagram Process flow diagram or PFD used in chemical engineering Program structure diagram R Radar chart Radial Diagram Requirement Diagram Used in SysML Rich Picture R-diagram Routing diagram S Sankey diagram represents material, energy or cost flows with quantity proportional arrows in a process network. Sentence diagram represents the grammatical structure of a natural language sentence. Sequence diagram from UML 8/9 and SysML SDL/GR diagram Specification and Description Language. SDL is a formal language used in computer science. Smith chart Spider chart Spray diagram SSADM Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology used in software engineering Star chart/Celestial sphere State diagram are used for state machines in software engineering from UML 7/9 Swim lane Syntax diagram used in software engineering to represent a context-free grammar Systems Biology Graphical Notation a graphical notation used in diagrams of biochemical and cellular processes studied in Systems biology System context diagram System structure Systematic layout planning T Timing Diagram: Digital Timing Diagram Timing Diagram: UML 2.0 TQM Diagram Treemap U UML diagram Unified Modeling Language used in software engineering Use case diagram from UML 5/9 and SysML V Value Stream Mapping Venn diagram Voronoi diagram W Warnier-Orr Williot diagram Y Yourdon-Coad see Edward Yourdon, used in software engineering
Thermodynamic models can be used to predict various properties such as enthalpy or phase equilibrium. Model categories include equations of state, activity coefficient, empirical, or special system specific. Model selection can depend on parameters such as process species and compositions, pressure and temperature ranges, availability of data, and other aspects [2, 3, 11]. These models can help to understand system behavior.
Thermodynamic Data, Models, and Phase Diagrams in Multicomponent Oxide Systems Book Subtitle An Assessment for Materials and Planetary Scientists Based on Calorimetric, Volumetric and Phase Equilibrium Data
Thermodynamic modeling of the Ca–Ge system has been carried out by means of the CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method and new experimental phase diagram data. The liquid phase and the intermetallic compounds Ca 2 Ge, Ca 5 Ge 3, Ca 7 Ge 6 (new compound), CaGe and CaGe 2 are taken into consideration in this optimization. The substitutional solution model was used to describe the liquid phase.
Reliable thermodynamic data are essential for the accurate design or analysis of distillation columns. The failure of equipment to perform at specified levels is often attributable, at least in part, to the lack of such data. This subsection summarizes and presents examples of phase equilibrium data currently available to the designer.
The thermodynamic properties of each phase are then described with a mathematical model containing adjustable parameters. The parameters are evaluated by optimizing the fit of the model to all the information, also involving coexisting phases.
The selection of a suitable thermodynamic model for the prediction of enthalpy (H) and phase equilibrium (K) is fundamental to process modelling. Selection of an inappropriate model will result in convergence problems and erroneous results. The selection process is driven by considering the following: Process species and compositions.
A thermodynamic description of a system requires assignment of thermodynamic functions for each phase. The CALPHAD method employs a variety of models to describe the temperature, pressure and concentration dependencies of the free energy functions of the various phases. The contributions to the Gibbs energy of a phase can be written: (2)
Thermodynamic Models & Physical Properties When building a simulation, it is important to ensure that the properties of pure components and mixtures are being estimated appropriately. In fact, selecting the proper method for estimating properties is one of the most important steps that will affect the rest of the simulation.
A thermodynamic description of a system requires the assignment of thermodynamic functions for each phase. The CALPHAD method employs a variety of models to describe the temperature, pressure, and concentration dependencies of the free energy functions of the various phases.